3D photography or stereoscopic photography is the art of capturing and displaying two slightly offset photographs to create three dimensional images.
The 3D effect works because of a principle called stereopsis. Each eye is in a different location, and as a result, it sees a slightly different image. The difference between these images is what lets us perceive depth. This effect can be replicated with photography by taking two pictures of the subject that are offset by the same distance as your pupils (about 2.5 inches or 63 mm).
The two images are then viewed so that each eye sees only the corresponding picture. Your brain puts the two images together just as it does for normal vision and you perceive a single three dimensional image. (Text from 3D Stereoscopic Photography by DIY Hacks and How Tos)
A series of 20 stereoscopic photographs from the 1939 New York World's Fair courtesy of Maher Ahmad.
View stereoscopic photographs Collection 1
A series of 10 color stereoscopic photographs from the 1939 New York World's Fair courtesy of Tony Peregoy great-nephew of Photographer Ellen McAlpin Johnson.
View stereoscopic photographs Collection 2
A series of 6 blank & white stereoscopic photographs from the 1939 New York World's Fair courtesy of Andy Kaufman.
View stereoscopic photographs Collection 3
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